Earth Impact Effects Program

Robert Marcus, H. Jay Melosh, and Gareth Collins

Please note: the results below are estimates based on current (limited) understanding of the impact process and come with large uncertainties; they should be used with caution, particularly in the case of peculiar input parameters. All values are given to three significant figures but this does not reflect the precision of the estimate. For more information about the uncertainty associated with our calculations and a full discussion of this program, please refer to this article

Your Inputs:

Distance from Impact: 45.00 km ( = 27.90 miles )
Projectile diameter: 4.50 km ( = 2.79 miles )
Projectile Density: 3000 kg/m3
Impact Velocity: 50.00 km per second ( = 31.10 miles per second )
Impact Angle: 45 degrees
Target Density: 2500 kg/m3
Target Type: Sedimentary Rock


Energy before atmospheric entry: 1.79 x 1023 Joules = 4.27 x 107 MegaTons TNT
The average interval between impacts of this size somewhere on Earth during the last 4 billion years is 8.3 x 107years

Major Global Changes:

The Earth is not strongly disturbed by the impact and loses negligible mass.
The impact does not make a noticeable change in the tilt of Earth's axis (< 5 hundreths of a degree).
The impact does not shift the Earth's orbit noticeably.

Crater Dimensions:

What does this mean?

Transient Crater Diameter: 54.9 km ( = 34.1 miles )
Transient Crater Depth: 19.4 km ( = 12.1 miles )

Final Crater Diameter: 93 km ( = 57.8 miles )
Final Crater Depth: 1.16 km ( = 0.719 miles )
The crater formed is a complex crater.
The volume of the target melted or vaporized is 1120 km3 = 269 miles3
Roughly half the melt remains in the crater, where its average thickness is 474 meters ( = 1550 feet ).

Thermal Radiation:

What does this mean?

Time for maximum radiation: 2.25 seconds after impact

Your position is inside the fireball.
The fireball appears 568 times larger than the sun
Thermal Exposure: 4.20 x 1010 Joules/m2
Duration of Irradiation: 24.4 minutes
Radiant flux (relative to the sun): 28700

Effects of Thermal Radiation:

Seismic Effects:

What does this mean?

The major seismic shaking will arrive approximately 9 seconds after impact.
Richter Scale Magnitude: 9.7 (This is greater than any earthquake in recorded history)
Mercalli Scale Intensity at a distance of 45 km:


What does this mean?

Your position is in the region which collapses into the final crater.

Air Blast:

What does this mean?

The air blast will arrive approximately 2.27 minutes after impact.
Peak Overpressure: 7.3e+07 Pa = 730 bars = 10400 psi
Max wind velocity: 6870 m/s = 15400 mph
Sound Intensity: 157 dB (Dangerously Loud)
Damage Description:

Tell me more...

Click here for a pdf document that details the observations, assumptions, and equations upon which this program is based. It describes our approach to quantifying the important impact processes that might affect the people, buildings, and landscape in the vicinity of an impact event and discusses the uncertainty in our predictions. The processes included are: atmospheric entry, impact crater formation, fireball expansion and thermal radiation, ejecta deposition, seismic shaking, and the propagation of the atmospheric blast wave.

Earth Impact Effects Program Copyright 2004, Robert Marcus, H.J. Melosh, and G.S. Collins
These results come with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY