Earth Impact Effects Program

Robert Marcus, H. Jay Melosh, and Gareth Collins

Please note: the results below are estimates based on current (limited) understanding of the impact process and come with large uncertainties; they should be used with caution, particularly in the case of peculiar input parameters. All values are given to three significant figures but this does not reflect the precision of the estimate. For more information about the uncertainty associated with our calculations and a full discussion of this program, please refer to this article

Your Inputs:

Distance from Impact: 2.00 km ( = 1.24 miles )
Projectile diameter: 34.50 meters ( = 113.00 feet )
Projectile Density: 15800 kg/m3
Impact Velocity: 120000.00 km per second ( = 74500.00 miles per second ) (Your chosen velocity is higher than the maximum for an object orbiting the sun)
Impact Angle: 90 degrees
Target Density: 2500 kg/m3
Target Type: Sedimentary Rock


Energy before atmospheric entry: NaN x 10NaN Joules = 5.82 x 108 MegaTons TNT
The average interval between impacts of this size somewhere on Earth during the last 4 billion years is 6.2 x 108years

Major Global Changes:

The Earth is not strongly disturbed by the impact and loses negligible mass.
The impact does not make a noticeable change in the tilt of Earth's axis (< 5 hundreths of a degree).
The impact does not shift the Earth's orbit noticeably.

Atmospheric Entry:

The projectile begins to breakup at an altitude of 114000 meters = 375000 ft
The projectile reaches the ground in a broken condition. The mass of projectile strikes the surface at velocity 86900 km/s = 54000 miles/s
The impact energy is 1.28 x 1024 Joules = 3.05 x 108MegaTons.
The broken projectile fragments strike the ground in an ellipse of dimension 0.183 km by 0.183 km

Crater Dimensions:

What does this mean?

Crater shape is normal in spite of atmospheric crushing; fragments are not significantly dispersed.

Transient Crater Diameter: 64 km ( = 39.7 miles )
Transient Crater Depth: 22.6 km ( = 14 miles )

Final Crater Diameter: 110 km ( = 68.6 miles )
Final Crater Depth: 1.22 km ( = 0.757 miles )
The crater formed is a complex crater.
The volume of the target melted or vaporized is 11400 km3 = 2730 miles3
Roughly half the melt remains in the crater, where its average thickness is 3.54 km ( = 2.2 miles ).


What does this mean?

Your position was inside the transient crater and ejected upon impact