Earth Impact Effects Program

Robert Marcus, H. Jay Melosh, and Gareth Collins

Please note: the results below are estimates based on current (limited) understanding of the impact process and come with large uncertainties; they should be used with caution, particularly in the case of peculiar input parameters. All values are given to three significant figures but this does not reflect the precision of the estimate. For more information about the uncertainty associated with our calculations and a full discussion of this program, please refer to this article

Your Inputs:

Distance from Impact: 1000.00 meters ( = 3280.00 feet )
Projectile diameter: 100.00 km ( = 62.10 miles )
Projectile Density: 3000 kg/m3
Impact Velocity: 20.00 km per second ( = 12.40 miles per second )
Impact Angle: 10 degrees
Target Density: 2500 kg/m3
Target Type: Sedimentary Rock


Energy before atmospheric entry: 3.14 x 1026 Joules = 7.50 x 1010 MegaTons TNT
The average interval between impacts of this size is longer than the Earth's age.
Such impacts could only occur during the accumulation of the Earth, between 4.5 and 4 billion years ago.

Major Global Changes:

The Earth is not strongly disturbed by the impact and loses negligible mass.
The impact does not make a noticeable change in the tilt of Earth's axis (< 5 hundreths of a degree).
Depending on the direction and location of impact, the collision may cause a change in the length of the day of up to 2.42 seconds.
The impact does not shift the Earth's orbit noticeably.

Crater Dimensions:

What does this mean?

Transient Crater Diameter: 258 km ( = 160 miles )
Transient Crater Depth: 91.4 km ( = 56.7 miles )

Final Crater Diameter: 535 km ( = 332 miles )
Final Crater Depth: 1.96 km ( = 1.22 miles )
The crater formed is a complex crater.
The volume of the target melted or vaporized is 485000 km3 = 116000 miles3
Roughly half the melt remains in the crater, where its average thickness is 9.26 km ( = 5.75 miles ).


What does this mean?

Your position was inside the transient crater and ejected upon impact