Please note: the results below are estimates based on current (limited) understanding of the impact process and come with large uncertainties; they should be used with caution, particularly in the case of peculiar input parameters. All values are given to three significant figures but this does not reflect the precision of the estimate. For more information about the uncertainty associated with our calculations and a full discussion of this program, please refer to this article
Click each effect button (e.g. "Crater") to see the extent of each impact effect!
- Projectile diameter: 1000.00 meters ( = 3280.00 feet )
- Projectile Density: 8000 kg/m3
- Impact Velocity: 72.00 km per second ( = 44.70 miles per second )
(Your chosen velocity is higher than the maximum for an object orbiting the sun)
- Impact Angle: 90 degrees
- Target Density: 2500 kg/m3
- Target Type: Sedimentary Rock
- Energy before atmospheric entry: 1.09 x 1022 Joules = 2.59 x 106 MegaTons TNT
- The average interval between impacts of this size somewhere on Earth during the last 4 billion years is 9.6 x 106years
Major Global Changes:
- The Earth is not strongly disturbed by the impact and loses negligible mass.
- The impact does not make a noticeable change in the tilt of Earth's axis (< 5 hundreths of a degree).
- The impact does not shift the Earth's orbit noticeably.
- What does this mean?
- Transient Crater Diameter:
31.1 km ( = 19.3 miles )
- Transient Crater Depth: 11 km ( = 6.82 miles )
- Final Crater Diameter:
48.8 km ( = 30.3 miles )
- Final Crater Depth: 954 meters ( = 3130 feet )
- The crater formed is a complex crater.
- The volume of the target melted or vaporized is 96.3 km3 = 23.1 miles3
- Roughly half the melt remains in the crater, where its average thickness is 127 meters ( = 417 feet ).
Tell me more...
Click here for a pdf document that details the observations, assumptions, and equations upon which this program is based. It
describes our approach to quantifying the important impact processes that might affect the people, buildings, and landscape in the
vicinity of an impact event and discusses the uncertainty in our predictions. The processes included are: atmospheric entry, impact
crater formation, fireball expansion and thermal radiation, ejecta deposition, seismic shaking, and the propagation of the atmospheric
Recent improvements in the airblast calculation are described here.
Earth Impact Effects Program Copyright 2004, Robert Marcus, H.J. Melosh, and G.S. Collins
These results come with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY