Earth Impact Effects Program

Robert Marcus, H. Jay Melosh, and Gareth Collins

Please note: the results below are estimates based on current (limited) understanding of the impact process and come with large uncertainties; they should be used with caution, particularly in the case of peculiar input parameters. All values are given to three significant figures but this does not reflect the precision of the estimate. For more information about the uncertainty associated with our calculations and a full discussion of this program, please refer to this article

Your Inputs:

Distance from Impact: 10.00 km ( = 6.21 miles )
Projectile diameter: 10.00 km ( = 6.21 miles )
Projectile Density: 3000 kg/m3
Impact Velocity: 17.00 km per second ( = 10.60 miles per second )
Impact Angle: 45 degrees
Target Density: 1000 kg/m3
Target Type: Liquid water of depth 50.0 meters ( = 164.0 feet ), over crystalline rock.


Energy before atmospheric entry: 2.27 x 1023 Joules = 5.42 x 107 MegaTons TNT
The average interval between impacts of this size somewhere on Earth during the last 4 billion years is 9.9 x 107years

Major Global Changes:

The Earth is not strongly disturbed by the impact and loses negligible mass.
The impact does not make a noticeable change in the tilt of Earth's axis (< 5 hundreths of a degree).
Depending on the direction and location of impact, the collision may cause a change in the length of the day of up to 1.47 milliseconds.
The impact does not shift the Earth's orbit noticeably.

Crater Dimensions:

What does this mean?

The crater opened in the water has a diameter of 102 km ( = 63.1 miles ).

For the crater formed in the seafloor:
Transient Crater Diameter: 62 km ( = 38.5 miles )
Transient Crater Depth: 21.9 km ( = 13.6 miles )

Final Crater Diameter: 107 km ( = 66.3 miles )
Final Crater Depth: 1.21 km ( = 0.75 miles )
The crater formed is a complex crater.
The volume of the target melted or vaporized is 1420 km3 = 340 miles3
Roughly half the melt remains in the crater, where its average thickness is 469 meters ( = 1540 feet ).


What does this mean?

Your position was inside the transient crater and ejected upon impact