Earth Impact Effects Program

Robert Marcus, H. Jay Melosh, and Gareth Collins

Please note: the results below are estimates based on current (limited) understanding of the impact process and come with large uncertainties; they should be used with caution, particularly in the case of peculiar input parameters. All values are given to three significant figures but this does not reflect the precision of the estimate. For more information about the uncertainty associated with our calculations and a full discussion of this program, please refer to this article

Your Inputs:

Distance from Impact: 1000.00 meters ( = 3280.00 feet )
Projectile diameter: 4.00 meters ( = 13.10 feet )
Projectile Density: 22560 kg/m3
Impact Velocity: 11.00 km per second ( = 6.83 miles per second )
Impact Angle: 45 degrees
Target Density: 2750 kg/m3
Target Type: Crystalline Rock


Energy before atmospheric entry: 4.57 x 1013 Joules = 0.11 x 10-1 MegaTons TNT
The average interval between impacts of this size somewhere on Earth is 5.1 years

Major Global Changes:

The Earth is not strongly disturbed by the impact and loses negligible mass.
The impact does not make a noticeable change in the tilt of Earth's axis (< 5 hundreths of a degree).
The impact does not shift the Earth's orbit noticeably.

Atmospheric Entry:

The projectile lands intact, with a velocity 9.11 km/s = 5.66 miles/s.
The energy lost in the atmosphere is 1.43 x 1013 Joules = 0.34 x 10-2 MegaTons.

Crater Dimensions:

What does this mean?

Transient Crater Diameter: 206 meters ( = 675 feet )
Transient Crater Depth: 72.7 meters ( = 239 feet )

Final Crater Diameter: 257 meters ( = 843 feet )
Final Crater Depth: 54.7 meters ( = 180 feet )
The crater formed is a simple crater

The floor of the crater is underlain by a lens of broken rock debris (breccia) with a maximum thickness of 25.4 meters ( = 83.2 feet ).
At this impact velocity ( < 12 km/s), little shock melting of the target occurs.

Thermal Radiation:

What does this mean?

At this impact velocity ( < 15 km/s), little vaporization occurs; no fireball is created, therefore, there is no thermal radiation damage.

Seismic Effects:

What does this mean?

The major seismic shaking will arrive approximately 200 milliseconds after impact.
Richter Scale Magnitude: 3.2
Mercalli Scale Intensity at a distance of 1 km:


What does this mean?

Most ejecta is blocked by Earth's atmosphere

Air Blast:

What does this mean?

The air blast will arrive approximately 3.03 seconds after impact.
Peak Overpressure: 25900 Pa = 0.259 bars = 3.68 psi
Max wind velocity: 55.3 m/s = 124 mph
Sound Intensity: 88 dB (Loud as heavy traffic)
Damage Description:

Tell me more...

Click here for a pdf document that details the observations, assumptions, and equations upon which this program is based. It describes our approach to quantifying the important impact processes that might affect the people, buildings, and landscape in the vicinity of an impact event and discusses the uncertainty in our predictions. The processes included are: atmospheric entry, impact crater formation, fireball expansion and thermal radiation, ejecta deposition, seismic shaking, and the propagation of the atmospheric blast wave.

Recent improvements in the airblast calculation are described here.

Earth Impact Effects Program Copyright 2004, Robert Marcus, H.J. Melosh, and G.S. Collins
These results come with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY